Chhōtā Ghallūghārā (Punjabi: ਛੋਟਾ ਘੱਲੂਘਾਰਾ [tʃʰoʈɑ kə̀lːuɡɑ̀ɾɑ]) was a massacre of a significant proportion of the Sikh population especially by the invading Pashtun people of the Durrani Empire during the waning years of the Mughal Empire. Vaḍḍā Ghallūghārā (Punjabi: ਵੱਡਾ ਘੱਲੂਘਾਰਾ [ʋəɖɖɑ kə̀lːuɡɑ̀ɾɑ] (the Great Massacre)) was the mass murder of the Sikhs by Afghan forces of the Durrani Empire that happened during the years of Afghan influence in the Punjab region owing to the repeated incursions of Ahmad Shah Durrani in 1764. The Ghallūghārā’s not pogroms in the sense of the killing of masses of defenceless people. Since the martyrdom of the fifth Sikh Guru, Guru Arjan Dev in 1606, Sikhs wielded arms in self-defense. The first holocaust was a program during the Afghan provincial government’s campaign to wipe out the Sikhs, an offensive that had begun during the Mughal Empire and lasted several decades.